Small animal cardiac ultrasound measurements

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Small animal cardiac ultrasound measurements

small animal measurements

LA:Ao (Left atrium:aortic root ratio)

Right parasternal short axis view at the level of left atrium and aorta (‘Mercedes Benz’)
Measurement on frozen B-mode image
Measurement taken during diastole (just before QRS on ECG)
Measurements taken: LA Diam + Ao Diam (machine will calculate LA:Ao for you)
Lines should be drawn through middle of aortic valve leaflets and continued through left atrium in a straight line
Normal value - <1.5 in normal dog
Increased value in left atrial enlargement (disease like Mitral regurgitation)

small animal ultrasound

FS (Fractional shortening)
Right parasternal short axis view at level of chordae tendinae (Mushroom view)
Measurement on frozen M-mode image
3 measurements taken during diastole and 3 during systole (6 total)
Diastole (just before QRS on ECG)
- IVSd (Interventricular septum at end diastole)
- LVIDd (Left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole)
- LVPWd (Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole) or LVFWd 
 (Left ventricular free wall thickness at end diastole) – depends on if human machine 
Systole (at nadir of septal motion – when ventricular diameter narrowest)
- IVSs (Interventricular septum at end systole)
- LVIDs (Left ventricular internal diameter at end systole)
- LVPWs (Left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end systole) or LVFWs 
 (Left ventricular free wall thickness at end systole) – depends on if human machine
All measurements are taken from leading edge to leading edge (see below)
Machine will calculate Fractional shortening
Normal value - >25% in normal dog (breed variations!)
Decreased in DCM (heart contracting poorly during systole)

small animal ultrasound

EF (Ejection fraction)
Right parasternal long axis view (4 chamber view)
Measurement on frozen B-mode image
Simpson’s rule used to evaluate left ventricular volume 
2 measurements made during diastole and 2 measurements taken during systole
Diastole
- LVLd (Left ventricle length during diastole)
- LVAd (Left ventricle area during diastole)
Systole
- LVLs (Left ventricle length during systole)
- LVAs (Left ventricle area during systole)
Machine will calculate Ejection fraction (will also display EDV and ESV – End diastolic 
volume and End systolic volume)
Normal value - >50% in normal dog
Decreased in DCM (heart contracting poorly during systole)

small animal ultrasound

small animal ultrasound

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